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Howard Chang (Stanford, HHMI) 1: Epigenomic Technologies

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In this talk, Dr. Howard Chang describes epigenomic approaches pioneered by his lab and the role of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating gene expression.

In Part 1 of this series, Dr. Howard Chang introduces epigenomics, the study of DNA regulatory mechanisms that determine which genes are turned on or off in cells at specific times. The epigenome integrates signals from the environment to modify expression of the DNA blueprint inherited from an individual’s parents. Chang’s lab has pioneered techniques to map the landscape of chromatin, the complex of DNA, RNA and protein that organizes the genome and regulates gene expression. One example is ATAC, the Assay of Transposase Accessible Chromatin, which uses a bacterial transposase to mark open chromatin and identify genes that are likely turned “on”.

In his Part 2, Chang introduces long noncoding RNAs, or lncRNAs. As their name suggests, lncRNAs are not translated into proteins, and initially their functions were poorly understood. Chang’s group has developed technologies to better understand the function of lncRNAs. For example, his lab characterized the protein partners that interact with Xist, a canonical lncRNA that mediates X chromosome inactivation. They found that the protein Spen is necessary for X chromosome silencing. Interestingly, Spen has likely been co-opted by mammalian cells to inactivate the X chromosome via viral mimicry.

In his Part 3, Chang reminds us that every lncRNA gene has its own set of DNA regulatory elements, such as enhancers and promoters. These regulatory elements can confer functionality to lncRNA genes. Chang shares the research story of a mysterious lncRNA known as PVT1, which is frequently co-amplified with the proto-oncogene MYC in human cancers. His group found that PVT1 promoter activity is inversely correlated with MYC expression – when one is up, the other is down. Finally, Chang shows that the PVT1 and MYC promoters compete for four enhancers located within the PVT1 gene locus.

Speaker Biography:
Howard Chang is the Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Cancer Genomics and a professor of dermatology and genetics at Stanford University. He is an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He studied biochemistry at Harvard University and completed a doctorate in biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and medical degree at Harvard Medical School. The Chang lab pioneers new technologies for probing the function of the non-coding genome.

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Revolut raises $500 million at $5.5 billion

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  • European challenger bank Revolut has raised $500 million in Series D funding from Silicon Valley growth fund TCV. 
  • The long-anticipated fundraising takes the startup’s post-money valuation to $5.5 billion, up from $1.7 billion previously, making it one of Europe’s most valuable fintech companies. 
  • Founded in 2015, Revolut claims to have around 7 million customers and has raised $836 million to-date. 
  • The company’s rapid growth has been marred by questions over its workplace culture and compliance procedures.
  •  Click here for more BI Prime stories.

Revolut, one of Europe’s buzziest neo-banks, has raised $500 million in Series D funding from Silicon Valley growth fund TCV taking its valuation to $5.5 billion. 

The long-anticipated fundraising makes Revolut one of Europe’s most valuable startups in the red-hot fintech sector. Other major European finance firms include payment firm Klarna, money transfer firm Transferwise, and OakNorth bank.

Revolut, founded in 2015 by the developer Vlad Yatsenko and the former Lehman Brothers and Credit Suisse trader Nikolay Storonsky, says it has around 7 million customers.

Reports had previously indicated that Revolut would take on some form of debt alongside the equity fundraise, but the company said this wasn’t happening for now.

In 2018, filings show Revolut posted revenues of £58.2 million ($74 million) on a net loss of £32.8 million ($42 million). The company has yet to release figures for 2019, but says it has experienced considerable revenue and customer growth.

It is in the process of applying for a US banking license and has expanded into Europe, as well as into Australia.

The London-based company allows users to spend money worldwide in 150 currencies at a real-time exchange rate, with no fees, through a debit card. CEO Storonsky has previously outlined his goal of seeing the bank reach 100 million customers in the next five years and break into North American and Pacific markets. Revolut is available in 32 countries and previously signed a deal with Visa, with plans to take the number to 56. 

Revolut’s growth has come with increased scrutiny. Wired reported on the firm’s aggressive culture and tendency to ask job applicants for free work, while The Telegraph raised questions about the startup’s compliance procedures. Regarding the culture, Storonsky has acknowledged “mistakes” in the running of the firm. The firm has denied compliance lapses.



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U.S. Supreme Court rejects Apple appeal in patent fight with VirnetX

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FILE PHOTO: The Apple logo is shown atop an Apple store at a shopping mall in La Jolla, California, U.S., December 17, 2019, 2019. REUTERS/Mike Blake/File Photo

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday refused to hear Apple Inc’s bid to avoid paying about $440 million in damages for using patent licensing firm VirnetX Inc’s internet security technology without permission in features such as FaceTime video calling.

The justices rejected Apple’s appeal in the long-running case in which a federal jury in 2016 found that Apple had infringed VirnetX’s patents and awarded $302 million. A judge later increased that amount to $439.7 million including interest and other costs.

The case dates back to 2010 when Nevada-based VirnetX filed suit in federal court in the Eastern District of Texas accusing Cupertino, California-based Apple of infringing four patents for secure networks, known as virtual private networks, and secure communications links. VirnetX said Apple infringed with its FaceTime and VPN on Demand features in products such as the iPhone and iPad.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Washington, which specializes in patent disputes, upheld the judgment against Apple last year.

During the litigation, Apple and other companies requested that a tribunal of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office review the validity of the VirnetX patents. The tribunal canceled key parts of the patents at issue in the case.

But in separate decisions also issued last year, the Federal Circuit set aside certain of the tribunal’s rulings, bringing VirnetX closer to collecting damages from Apple. Apple appealed to the Supreme Court, contending that the damages should be recalculated because the specific patents VirnetX accused it of infringing with FaceTime were nearly wiped out.

Apple in a court filing called the Federal Circuit’s refusal to entertain its demands “legally wrong and grossly unfair.” The company also said the lower courts impermissibly allowed VirnetX to request damages far beyond the value of the patented invention.

VirnetX told the justices: “The entire damages award … remains supported by claims that a jury – and the Federal Circuit – found valid years ago and that have not been canceled since.”

Reporting by Andrew Chung; Editing by Will Dunham

Our Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.



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5 amazing products at their lowest prices

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— Recommendations are independently chosen by Reviewed’s editors. Purchases you make through our links may earn us a commission.

Happy Monday! In my humble opinion, there’s no better way to start the week than hunting down a good deal. Not only can you get something you’ve been eyeing for a while at an incredible price, but there’s also a little excitement knowing a package will be arriving for you sometime during the week. Today’s deals are particularly exciting because you can find some of our top-tested products at their lowest prices including robot vacuums, Lodge cast iron skillets, and Roku streaming sticks. Check out all the ways you can save today.

Love a good deal?: Sign up for our weekly deals newsletter. It’s free and you can unsubscribe any time.

1. Lowest price: The best affordable robot vacuum on the market

2020 is the year I’ve decided to become a little more cleaner and organized, but being as busy as I am, the cleaning part—specifically vacuuming enough—has been left in the dust. But with a nifty robot vacuum, I could get it to do my dirty work for me before I can do a weekly (err, monthly) deep clean. Plus, you don’t even have to spend too much to get a great one. Right now, you can get our favorite affordable robot vacuum for $70 off in the color white, which is also the lowest price we’ve seen since the holidays. We love the Eufy RoboVac 11S for its great cleaning power and reasonable price, which is even more reasonable thanks to this deal.

Get the Eufy BoostIQ RoboVac 11S for $159.99 (Save $70)

2. Under $10: Our favorite cast iron skillet

Cast iron pans are a game-changer in the kitchen. Not only can you use them on the stovetop but they can also go in the oven or on the grill, making them a versatile piece of cookware. Lodge makes the best cast iron cookware, and right now you can get this popular 8-inch skillet for just $8 and the lowest price we’ve ever seen. It’s an ideal size for baking smaller desserts or cooking a meal for one.

Get the Lodge Cast Iron 8-Inch Skillet for $7.99 (Save $2)

3. $20 off: The best affordable streaming stick

During the colder seasons, there’s nothing I want to do more than binge-watch Disney+ or Netflix and avoid going outside. For the best binge-watching experience, you’re going to want a good streaming stick to watch it on the small screen as opposed to your laptop. The Roku Streaming Stick+ is the best affordable media streaming device we’ve ever tested. It offers 4K or HDR content and has an amazing interface, which means it’s probably better than the streaming interface your Smart TV currently has Right now, you can get it for $20 off, which is its second lowest price.

Get the Roku Streaming Stick+ for $39 (Save $20.99)

4. 25% off: The best packing cubes for traveling

The most stressful part about any trip is packing. You need to figure out how you’re going to fit everything in your suitcase, and how you’re going to find what you’re looking for without making a mess once you’ve reached your destination. That’s where packing cubes come in and this set from eBags is the best one we’ve ever tested. Right now, you can get the three-piece set 20% off and the six-piece set for 25% off if you clip the on-page coupon, which is the lowest price we’ve ever seen for either. If you have any big trips planned for 2020, this deal is for you.

  • Get the eBags Three-Piece Packing Cube Value Set for $23.99 (Save $6)
  • Get the eBags Six-Piece Packing Cube Value Set for $33.74 (Save $11.25)

5. Lowest price: Our favorite classic rolling pin for baking and more

I love baking cooking, pizza making, and the like, but for some reason, I still don’t own a proper rolling pin—and let me tell you, a wine bottle just doesn’t cut it. But now is the time to finally get one because the best classic rolling pin we’ve ever tested is down to its lowest price of just $8. We love how comfortable the pin felt in our hands (read: no hand cramps) and that it was seamless to achieve the desired thickness of the dough. It’s honestly the perfect pin for any kitchen, especially at this price.

Get the Farberware Classic Wood Rolling Pin for $7.99 (Save $10) 

The product experts at Reviewed have all your shopping needs covered. Follow Reviewed on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram for the latest deals, reviews, and more.

Prices were accurate at the time this article was published but may change over time.



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